La transformación del viejo Reichstag se fundamenta en cuatro aspectos relacionados entre sí: la importancia del Bundestag en tanto que foro democrático, el entendimiento de la historia, el compromiso con la accesibilidad del público y un sólido programa ambiental. El Reichstag había quedado mutilado por la guerra y afeado por una ulterior reparación insensible. La reconstrucción sigue el ejemplo de la estructura original. Se despojó al edificio de las capas de historia para dejar al descubierto las llamativas huellas del pasado (marcas de picapedreros y grafitis rusos), cicatrices conservadas a modo de «museo vivo». No obstante, en otros aspectos, el edificio actual se aleja por completo del pasado: bajo su denso caparazón se ha generado un espacio diáfano y transparente que deja a la vista las actividades que se realizan en su interior.

Tanto los ciudadanos como los políticos acceden al edificio por el mismo punto. El espacio público continúa en el restaurante de la terraza del tejado y en la cúpula, donde unas rampas transitables ascienden hasta una plataforma de observación que permite a los visitantes situarse simbólicamente por encima de las cabezas de los representantes electos en la cámara. La cúpula se ha convertido ya en un punto de referencia de Berlín. Simboliza el renacimiento a la vez que posibilita la iluminación y ventilación naturales del edificio. En su núcleo alberga una «escultura de luz» que refleja la luz del horizonte y la proyecta en la cámara inferior, mientras que un brise-soleil motorizado sigue la trayectoria del sol con el objetivo de filtrar la radiación y la intensa luz solar. Al caer la noche, este proceso se invierte y la cúpula se convierte, entonces, en un faro en el horizonte de la ciudad, símbolo de la fortaleza y el vigor del proceso democrático alemán.

La quema de biocombustible renovable (aceite vegetal refinado) en una instalación de cogeneración para producir electricidad, que es un sistema mucho más limpio que quemar combustibles fósiles, convierte al edificio en un modelo para el futuro. Gracias a este proceso, las emisiones de dióxido de carbono se reducen en un 94%. El exceso de calor se destina a calentar agua que se almacena en un acuífero soterrado a bastante profundidad. El agua caliente almacenada se bombea cuando se necesita, y puede utilizarse para calentar el edificio, o bien para alimentar una planta de refrigeración por absorción y producir así agua fría. Resulta bastante significativo que las necesidades energéticas del edificio sean tan modestas: este produce más energía de la que consume, lo cual le permite funcionar como una minicentral eléctrica en el nuevo barrio gubernamental. En suma, supone toda una lección de sostenibilidad.

Bocetos y dibujos

Desarrollo

Construcción

Sostenibilidad

Site + Climate

The design utilises natural light as an architectural feature. Careful attention was paid to the sun's movement around the building and how this could be used to bring light into the space.

Form + Massing

The renovation project sought to bring light, and openness into the building. To accomplish this, a large dome shaped sky light was installed to help capture and reflect daylight deep within the structure.

Passive Design

The solar collector brings natural lighting into the heart of the building, whilst an automated solar shade protects against unwanted, direct solar gain. The main chamber of parliament is naturally ventilated via the cupola.

Environmental Systems

The building was designed to optimise the use of passive systems whilst minimising active systems. Both the artificial lighting and ventilation are controlled by a central BMS system and a heat exchanger recovers waste heat from the exhaust air.

Renewable Energy

A biofuel powered, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) provides approximately 80% of the annual electricity and 90% of the heat load of the building. A large Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) acts as a seasonal store of both heat and coolth. Photovoltaic's on the roof power the solar shade within the light sculpture.

Energy Infrastructure

The CHP and GSHP units, at peak operation, provide energy to both the Reichstag and surrounding government buildings.

Mobility + Connectivity

There are public transport links near to the building and a large number of bike racks for both staff and visitors.

Materials + Waste

The design aimed to protect and maintain the masonry shell of the heritage building, whilst redeveloping some of the core areas. By retaining most of the original building structure, construction and demolition waste was significantly reduced.

Water

Inside the building low flow fixtures and fittings were selected to help reduce the potable water requirements. All landscaping is either low maintenance or hardscaping, to minimise water usage.

Land + Ecology

The bio-fuel used to power the CHP unit is derived from locally produced rapeseed vegetable oil. The Reichstag, next to the River Spree, is surrounded by landscaped areas, with a mix of biological diversity that is protected and managed.

Culture + Heritage

In stripping back previous reconstruction to the building, striking imprints from the past were unearthed, including graffiti left by Soviet soldiers. These discoverers influenced the design, creating a space that sought to become a 'living museum' of German history. Drawing light into the heart of the building, helped to create an open and visible platform for the German democratic process.

Wellbeing

The design sought to bring light and fresh air into the heart of the Reichstag, improving user wellbeing. The addition of viewing galleries and breakout spaces have brought additional amenities to the building.

Prosperity

The use of a locally produced biodiesel has helped protect and enhance the local agricultural economy. Increased tourist numbers to the Reichstag, has bought added benefits to the immediate vicinity.

Planning for Change

Creating a building that was open and honest about it's past has helped it become open-minded and forward-thinking about its future. The Reichstag has now become a beacon, signalling the vigour of the German democratic process.

Performance in Use

The operational energy profile for The Reichstag, shows that it uses 57% less primary energy than typical existing buildings, and 39% less than the requirements for new buildings.

Citas

Foster did the best job I've ever seen on public architecture.”Philip Johnson

Architectural Digest, May 2000

I believed that if we were to introduce a symbolically resonant structure that would signal the changed use of the building then that structure should also be an integral part of the buildings ecology.”Norman Foster

The new

renovated Reichstag is something of magnificent fishbowl, and a light, elegant contrast to its heavy container ... It is a convincing expression of the new German democracy.”Charles Jencks, World of Interiors, August 1999

Norman Foster ha successfully connected new and old

past and present so that the Reichstag’s new interiors meet our expectations of this epic building, but at the same time are welcoming not forbidding.”Wolfgang Thierse

The main impression one has of this revamped monument is space; volumes of the valuable stuff

stretching upwards and outwards in every direction. Space and light.” Jonathan Glancey. The Guardian, 19 April 1999

Instead of being a labyrinth of corridors and smoke-filled rooms

parliament has become as transparent as a goldfish bowl.”Max Davidson, The Sunday Telegraph, 16 May 1999

Datos y cifras

  • Adjudicación: 1992
  • Finalización: 1999
  • Superficie: 61 166m²
  • Altura: 47m
  • Capacidad: 600
  • Cliente: Bundesrepulik Deutschland
  • Ingeniero estructural: Arup/ Shlaich Bergermann & Partner/ Leonhardt Andrä & Partner
  • Supervisor de cantidades: Davis Langdon & Everest/ Buro Am Lutzowplatz
  • Ingeniero de M+E: Kaiser Bautechnik/ Fischer- Energie and Haustech/Planungsgruppe Karnasch-Hackstein/ Kuehn Associates
  • Ingeniero de iluminación: Claude Engle

Premioss

  • Architekturpreis 2000 des BDA Berlin Auszeichnung
  • The Design Sense Corporate Award
  • Preis des Deutschen Stahlbaus 2000
  • Eurosolar ‘German Solar Prize in the field of Renewable Energies’
  • ECCS European Award for Steel Structures - New Dome at the
  • Deutscher Architekturpreis
  • Architects' Journal and Bovis Europe Grand Award for Architecture at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition
  • DuPont Benedictus Award - Special Recognition
  • Design Council Millennium Product Award

Notas de prensa relacionadas:

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Horario de apertura:

Building is open daily from 8.00 to 23.00 hrs. Admission is free, advanced registration is required.

Página web:

www.bundestag.de